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60 case studies have been identified. The case studies focus on intercultural issues, integration, non-discrimination values and human rights at school.

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Investigating Prejudices for the Different in Second year Class of the Vocational School


Name of the teacher
Papageorgopoulou Georgia
Subject taught:
Modern greek language
Years of experience:
21 (10 in schoools)


Name of the School:
1st Vocational Upper Secondary School of Agia Paraskevi (1 ΕΠΑΛ Αγίας Παρασκευής)
School Typology:
Vocational School
Agia Paraskevi, Athens
Web site:


Background and Context:
Background and framework :Summary figure for the school year 2016-2017 of Vocational Secondary School of Agia Paraskevi.
5 sectors/specialties: (Management and Economics, Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation, Mechanical Engineering, Maritime Professions, Informatics).
51 educators
265 active students, of whom 40 girls {A level class: 53 (3 girls), B level class: 93 (13 girls), C level class: 119 (24 girls)}
Interlocality composition of the student population regarding the place of residence (from the municipalities of Eastern Attica - Agia Paraskevi, Papagou, Cholargos, Artemida / Loutsa, Gerakas, Glyka Nera, Kantza, Peania, Pallini, etc.).Therefore, while the school is in an urban suburb of Athens, many students come from distant and quite degraded areas, tranferring with public transportation.
Moreover, the socio-educational level of the EPAL students' families has particularities. (Most of them are students with low school performance, indifferent to the learning process, coming from low-income, social, educational background, many migrants and students diagnosed with or without educational, psychological, social and family difficulties.
Number of foreign students per class: A: 18/53, B: 25/93, C: 25/119, ie approximately 25% of pupils are foreigners, mainly migrants of Albanian origin. Some of the students {74/265 (A: 13/53, B: 26/93, C: 35/119)} have provided valid supporting documents for identified difficulties (learning and psychosocial), while 60/265 pupils are examined verbally in exams.
The school has been housed since its founding [PD. 865/1979 (Government Gazette 247, T. A '/ 2-11-1979)] to today in a rented building, which lacks basic facilities (a hall of events, sports grounds, sheltered open spaces, workshops,not accessible for people with disabilitties and even the classrooms are not sufficient). As far as the laboratory infrastructure is concerned, it is supported by the 1st Laboratory Center (EC) of Β' Athens (Mesogion 463), which also operates in a rented building. Student attendance takes place some days in one building and some in the other, a condition that makes school life even harder.
The building problem is expected to be resolved by relocating to a new neighboring building (the Barbika building, on Papaflessa and Lyceum streets), which is undergoing completion by the OSK (Organization for School Buildings) . At present, facilities are a major obstacle to the full development of teaching interventions and programs, limiting aspects of school life, creating conditions of delinquent behavior, and a degradation for the school community and blatant injustice for student students.
Factual Description:
The recorded case is about the 2nd class of the school [21 students, 16 boys / 5 girls, 13 nationals / 8 foreigners].
This is a classroom that I teach for the second year at a row and in which I have noticed phenomena of discrimination (often racist "teasing", devaluation of women, expression of dislike towards male homosexuality, appearance of phenomenon of fanciful fanaticism). A special characteristic of the classroom is that these phenomena are generalized in domestic and immigrant students, who have (apparently at least) good relations with each other, while the groups formed are "mixed".
Interaction with parents, greeks and migrants is good, they come to school and discuss with me in comfortable manner their children's problems (during this year 2016-17, there were many students absences, substances use and theft cases). Interaction with colleagues is not satisfactory because there are several teachers with views that favor a variety of discriminations.
On 8/11/2016, while discussing the issue of stereotypes for population groups,as part of the Greek Modern language subject, a student of Albanian origin did the Nazis salute. I reacted intensively, with references to historical past and current affairs. But the class bureau and other students claimed that someone has the right to be a Nazis if he so desires, and that I have stereotyped and oppressive attitudes and I hinder the free expression of their classmate.hey also said that I would not have reacted so much if it had supported, for example, the Communist Party, and I am therefore biased. In the following debate, views were expressed against the refugees gathered in camps, in Greece and in Europe in general, of Pakistanis and Roma people.
I decided to organize an intervention with the following motivation:
My concern on the views that are being developed in the classroom.
My desire to act, trying to shape a climate of democracy, solidarity and cooperation, and to reduce discrimination in the class.
My participation in the two-year training program Democratic Education* .
The intervention had as learning objectives, the students to:
Reflect on the notions of Nazism and racism
To realize their attitudes towards the 'different'
To reflect on the possible consequences of their attitudes and behavior towards others
Discuss the consequences that arise when we treat others stereotypically
Transfrom their attitude, if possible, to reduce discrimination.
The intervention took place within the course of the Modern Greek Language, of second level class of the vocational secondary school ( Lykeiou-epa-l), which is taught 3 hours a week. The actions were developed from November 2016 to April 2017, within the framework of the unit of the textbook "We and the others" .

*Democratic Education is a two-year teacher education and training program implemented by the National Center for Political Science and Sociology, Faculty of Political Science and Public Administration, and the Department of Education and Human Rights Education and Adult Education. The starting point of the project team is on the one hand the reflection on the intensity and multiplication of xenophobic and racist perceptions in today's society, especially at school, and on the other hand the common interest in dealing with undemocratic and violent phenomena in the field of education. The program supports one hundred active teachers in Athens, Thessaloniki and Patras. In addition, under program a) an electronic platform was set up to collect and provide relevant education and training materials; and b) original educational material, activity manuals and action proposals were produced.
Activities carried out:
Activities were developed around 2 concepts:
1. The notion Nazism
A. 18/11/2016: "Suggested photographs of the consequences of the Second World War", educational material of the Hellenic Parliament Foundation ( Collaborative image-based activity has sparked students' interest.
B. 6/12/2017: Collaborative study, writing notes and controversy debate in relation to the text "For Compliance and Obedience", section "Enemies of the Republic: Nazism", educational material of the Hellenic Parliament Foundation.
C. 9, 13 & 16/12/2016: Collaborative examination of the concept of Nazism from the network of concepts of Democratic Education ( The results were presented in plenary without tension.

2.The notion Racism
A. 17 & 20/01/2017: The material of the pedagogical workshop "Am I a racist? A Daily Test "of the Hellenic Parliament Foundation gives students the opportunity to approach everyday situations through the eyes of the the abusers and victims of prejudice and racist violence.
a. Sensitization test on possible "stops" in racist incidents.
b.Role-playing improvisation: in a block of flats Pakistani rent an apartment and tenants react according to their "role".
c. News reading about Pakistani people killed trying to untie couple from the train lines. Discussion by groups, recording emotions.
The activity concerned the students and they involved a lot, both in improvisation and in discussions. The element of surprise ("We wanted to expel the Pakistans from the block of flats and eventually they were killed to save an elderly couple") worked as an excuse for expressing emotions. Negative views were also expressed about the propagation of such news and the silence of others (rapes of greek woman by foreigners, etc.).

B. 9/02/2017: Supplementary activity occasioned by an incident that happened in January 2017 at a supermarket in California (a couple of expatriates received a verbal attack because they spoke Greek among them) and the follow-up of the episode (the couple gathers through the crowdfunding amount to travel in Greece the manager who intervened in their favor). The students read and commented on the couple's news and reaction. During the discussion, they acknowledged that foreigners in Greece are often victims of similar behaviors and that their situation does not allow them to react as the Greeks expatriates, so an intervention by "observers" is required.
The positive part of complementary activity is that it sensitized students who had objected to the previous activity (obviously because the protagonists are expatriates). So they accepted that every day we take part in xenophobic and racist attitudes towards migrants and refugees in our country.
. 7/03/2017: Activity " Labels" by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (, aiming at sensitizing students about the consequences of their behavior to "others" and to discuss the implications of the stereotyped approach of "others".
The students were divided into groups to work out ways to address the school's cleaning problem. Each of them had a labels-role that had stuck in her/his forehead without himself knowing what he was writing. The team was invited to address its members on the basis of these labels. There was a reflection on the role of stereotypes.
D. 25/04/2017: Activity "New Identity Cards" from the Handbook on Peer Mediation for Conflict Resolution in Schools ( CE%% BA% CE% CF% 81% CF% 84% CE% B5% CF% 82-% CE% BD% CE% AD% CF% 89% CE% CF% 85% CF% 84% CE% BF% CF% 84% CE% AE% CF% 84% CF% 89% CE% BD.pdf) with a view to understand diversity in daily life and mitigating prejudices for fellow groups (gypsies, homosexuals, foreigners, sicknesses, drug addicts, unemployed, homeless, disabled, etc.). Each student took an ID card and undertook to do a brief search for his new identity and imagine the difficulties he would face with it. Students were then asked to answer a questionnaire from the point of view of their new identity. There followed a discussion about students' feelings, prejudices about various social groups and the problems they posed. It is noted that the students refused to get the homosexual identity. We made a debate on the subject, but without stopping the (rather thick) reactions and the denial
Assessment and lesson learnt:
The students were concerned about the notions of Nazism and racism, explored their own attitudes towards the "different" and identified the consequences of these attitudes in their behavior. They discussed with the help of specialized tools and texts the consequences of stereotypical treatment of others. Looking at the question of possible attitudes to racist incidents, they commented on these attitudes, insisting on the attitude of neutrality.
The response of the students to the intervention was positive.
They acted, thought, searched, wrote, presented their work, participated in the debates, the groups and the plenary session of the class.The material seemed interesting to them to the extent that they treated it with the specific actions.
The intervention has brought to light problems faced in the classroom (fascism, racism, prejudice for women and gays, etc.). It certainly had an impact on pupils (native and foreigners), who often referred to them during the school year. I have no information to say if it has led to a substantial change in students' attitudes, and thus a reduction in discrimination. It has, however, led to an undeniable change of the classroom to the most positive, something that has been perceived during the last months of the school year by other colleagues as well. Student's interpersonal relationships improved considerably and the offending behaviors noted in the classroom were reduced.
Personally it gave me the opportunity to get to know students better and try to choose targeted actions, depending on the views expressed. It also allowed me to take a fresh look at my teaching practice and observe important weaknesses.
Positive points of the implemented strategy:
Good contact with students allowed the addressing of sensitive issues
Its long duration during the school year made it possible to adapt the planned actions according to the students' response and needs.
Using a variety of tools has enabled all students to engage, according to their interests and potentials.
Some activities included studying texts that had several difficulties for vocational school students.
It was not possible (due to specific circumstances) to involve other colleagues and disseminate the approach to the school unit.
Description of the Case Study in National Language:

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This web site reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.